Friday, October 26, 2012

Kingdom Through Covenant, by Gentry and Wellum



Book Review by Chris Haven

There have already been a number of reviews of this ground-breaking book from readers of various theological persuasions. See Blake White's book review here that links to many of such responses. 

To my knowledge, this is the first book published from a mainstream Christian book publisher (Crossway) authored by men who self identify as being in the "New Covenant Theology" biblical-theological camp. Prior to this book's release, most of the books written from this perspective were published by New Covenant Media.

Rather than going into great detail, let me just give you a high level overview. The book has three main sections: (1) a section on describing the theological landscape of Dispensational Theology on the one side of a spectrum and Paedobaptistic Covenant Theology on the other side; (2) the exegetical part of the book that digs deep in the text of the Scripture in context of the Old Testament setting; and (3) a section devoted to some implications of the exegesis. 

The first section really gives the bottom line of the book. The authors are looking for a third way between Dispensational Theology and Paedobaptistic Covenant Theology. Dispensationalism, it is argued, utilizes a faulty hermeneutic in failing to see how the New Covenant in Christ fulfills the "land" promises to Israel, while Covenant Theology fails in its hermeneutic to appreciate how the so called "genealogical principle" is a point of discontinuity between the New Covenant and its predecessor covenants. In the view of the authors, both Dispensational and Covenant Theologians commit the same hermeneutical error with respect to two different concepts. I think they are correct at this point. The perspective they advocate is called "New Covenant Theology" or "Progressive Covenantalism." That is to say, in light of Christ's coming we are no longer under the law of Moses or the clannish structures of the prior covenants (in agreement with Dispensationalism), but the church does become, to some extent, the beneficiary of the promises to restored Israel (in agreement with Covenant Theology). 

The middle section is rich in exegetical insight, however sometimes seems to drift off path into issues not central to the thesis. There is also a fair amount of discussion of the Hebrew texts at certain points, so if you don't know Hebrew you'll need to skim over those parts.  

The last major section of the book gives some practical implications for the perspective shared by the authors, like the atonement and baptism. Even though the book was about 800 pages long, the topic of the book is so large that much more could be examined by way of implications. For instance, I think there is much to be worked through in the area of Christian ethics based upon the authors' perspective. 

In all, a very good and thought-provoking book. I commend it to anyone who would like to explore the Old Testament deeply and re-examine the Bible through a fresh perspective, one that does not read it through the lens of the two most common evangelical approaches to Biblical Theology. 


Monday, January 30, 2012

Is There A Doctor in the House, by Ben Witherington III

Book Review by Chris Haven

Ben Witherington III has written a helpful little book on what it takes to be a world-class scholar in Biblical Studies. My wife laughed when she saw the book’s subtitle, “An insider’s story and advice on becoming a Bible scholar,” and quipped that only someone like me would ever read a book like that. She’s probably correct in her assessment that this book’s subject matter is probably going to appeal to a very small section of Christian readership. However, in reading the book I discovered that there is actually quite a bit of material that would be interesting to those who are not planning on apply to the University of Durham's PhD program next fall.

In the first chapter, Witherington gives a brief introduction to what it means to be a biblical scholar. Biblical scholars are said to be General Parishioners (“G.P.”). They have to acquire a well-rounded knowledge base.

In chapter 2, the subjects of choosing a school, program and mentor are discussed. The cost of a program is upwards of $100,000, and will take up to seven years to complete. The pros and cons of study overseas as versus in the United States are laid out as well. Witherington also has a helpful discussion on “find your voice,” that is, the ability to sift through material and to humbly arrive at well reasoned conclusions that are your own.

Chapter three is a call to original languages and sources. This is perhaps the most outstanding (and difficult) element of becoming a biblical scholar. True scholarship in the field of Biblical theology requires at least a working knowledge of seven languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, English, German, French, and Latin. The first three are the languages of the Bible; the last four are languages of secondary scholarship. Witherington shares a story in a later chapter of one PhD candidate who had a gaping hole in his research because he had not consulted important scholarship written in German.

Chapters four and five is where a reader who is not so much interested in the “how to” of becoming a scholar will likely find the material a bit more relevant. Here, Witherington talks about context and genre as tools to better understand the Bible. As for context, the contemporary reader of the Bible is exhorted to consider that the Old Testament era did not contain “democratic societies or capitalistic economies.” Context also shows that in the Old Testament individualism was unknown, conversion was an odd concept (since fundamental change was not usually seen as possible – “Can a leopard change its spots?”), grace was viewed suspiciously (a cycle of reciprocity), the Pharisees were not the “bad guys” by and large, and Jesus was actually born in the back of the ancestral home in Bethlehem (not outside an inn).

Chapter six addresses the need for the scholar to be engaged in “cross disciplinary training,” that is, boning up on systematic theology as well as biblical theology. Scholars are also exhorted to keep high moral standards as are worthy of their calling. This is a helpful reminder that academics are not just to love God with their minds, but every fiber of their being.

In chapter seven, we are introduced to a critical skill required of all scholars, namely, the ability to write well. Witherington provides helpful advice to the would-be scholar in suggesting that an author should determine for whom he ultimately intends to write. Witherington has chosen a writing carrier that focuses on three levels of readers: (1) laypeople, (2) students, and (3) scholars. He also warns that Christian scholars will experience a kind of persecution from secular academia and the media, pressuring them to retreat from faithful proclamation of truth. The reader is reminded that the Christian scholar is first and foremost a servant of the Lord and His church.

Chapter eight reveals another skill set of the scholar. He or she must be able to interpret the Bible. Witherington puts forth historically established hermeneutical principles and gives an assessment of each: Sola Scriptura, Scripture is its own best interpreter, Analogy of Faith, Sensus Literalis versus Sensus Plenior, Prediction versus Fulfillment, and the Quadrilateral. A helpful feature of this chapter was his summary of how a person should interpret and then apply the text (pp. 107-8). I also very much appreciated the succinct explanation of how a reader of Scripture should take into account the place in redemptive history where the biblical passage occurs. Witherington rightly, in my view, points out how some traditional covenantal theological perspectives do not sufficiently take into account the progressiveness in revelation, which leads to a rather flat reading of the Bible.

In chapter nine, Witherington asserts that a scholar must be able to lecture and teach. In my view, this is where many scholars fail. They may be brilliant, but they cannot teach “their way out of a wet paper bag.” Helpful suggestions include using power points, showing artifacts through an "elmo" projector, and exhibiting genuine enthusiasm for the topic. We are also reminded of the classical rhetorical virtues of ethos, logos and pathos. This concept as it is related to preaching is covered in Bryan Chapell’s excellent book on homiletics, Christ-Centered Preaching.

The tenth chapter again addresses the reality that the character of the scholar must be shaped by the subject matter of his or her studies. In this chapter there is also a challenge to prevailing concept of “objectivity” which a priori presupposes that skepticism of the Bible is the only proper starting point for the scholar. Witherington rightly calls out this view as equally unscholarly as is gullibly accepting the Bible. Scholars who trust nothing historically in the Bible should not be seen as somehow more objective. This is simply unvarnished bias.


The final chapter of the book is all about “counting the costs” of becoming a scholar.  Not only is there the cost of the education mentioned above, but books as well that can cost as much as the tuition. Perhaps the biggest cost is not financial, and not paid by the would-be scholar. It is the cost paid by the spouse and children of the scholar-in-training. Witherington cites Mark 10:28-30, suggesting that Jesus has called his followers to put his Kingdom even above family.  I found myself struggling with the concept of how one does this responsibly, in conjunction with the equally applicable teaching of Paul in 1 Timothy 5:8 where not providing for one’s family makes one worse than an unbeliever in God’s sight. Perhaps this is the greatest ethical tension for the scholar-in-training.

In conclusion, this book provided helpful insider information about becoming a biblical scholar. It also gave some helpful tools for better interpreting the Bible for the non-scholar. Those thinking about going on to do advanced studies in Biblical Studies will find this book very helpful as a guide for how to get there. Those who are not will benefit from the book at a certain level as well. 

I was provided this book for free by Zondervan to provide this review. 

Sunday, January 15, 2012

William Tyndale, by David Teems


Book Review by Chris Haven

By Teems' own admission, there is much about Tyndale’s life that is unknown. In seeking to present the historical man, Teems relies heavily upon the sixteenth century world of which Tyndale “would have been” a part. In approaching the story of Tyndale’s life this way, Teems is able to present a number of contemporary people and issues that make for very interesting reading.

Teems gives a good taste of late medieval culture. The institutional church and state were (unhealthily) conjoined. A person entered both by birth. “At the heart of medieval Christianity,” Teems writes, “was a reliance on fear and manipulation” (p. xi). The burning of heretics was a regular occurrence, where the church authorities pronounced a person to be guilty of heresy and then turned that person over to the secular authorities (whose laws made heresy a capital offense) for execution. Teems well conveys “the strict controlling motherhood of the Catholic Church over its children” (p. 167).

We are also provided much information about the development of languages. Latin was the lingua franca of Europe in the late medieval period. Scholars would not dream of condescending into a vernacular language, like English or German, in conveying their lofty or religious ideas. Hence, men like Tyndale and Luther, were not only radical in their endeavors to translate into the “common tongue,” but viewed by many as quite “low brow” for doing so. In the early sixteenth century, English was used for cursing, not theological discourse.

Teems furthermore gives insight into what a medieval education was like.  Entering university at fourteen was commonplace. There a student would receive a “liberal arts” education made up of logic, grammar, and rhetoric (the Trivium) and arithmetic, astronomy, music, and geometry (the Quadrivium). “Disputation,” or oral defense, was a staple of the medieval theological education. However, the Bible itself was not studied.

Not surprisingly, there is much about the history of Bible translation in the book. While John Wycliffe was the first to translate a Bible into English, Tyndale’s translation was much superior and had far broader influence. Wycliffe’s translation was Middle English (think Beowulf), hand written, based on inferior Latin manuscripts, and not plentiful in circulation. Tyndale’s work, on the other hand, was in early modern English (think Shakespeare), printed on presses, based upon Erasmus’ recently published Greek New Testament texts and Hebrew texts, and were more effectively circulated.

Teems paints an unsightly picture of Thomas More. Although granted Sainthood by the Roman Catholic Church, it’s difficult to see him as such after after reading Teems. More was a zealous defender of the Roman Catholic Church and its theology, and Tyndale seems to have brought out the absolute worst in him. While God does not take delight in the punishment of the wicked, More apparently did. Teems shows More’s obsession in seeing Tyndale and his ilk incinerated at the stake, and More’s writing to Tyndale is filled with coarse ad hominem abusive attacks (as was not uncommon in polemical discourse of the day).

Tyndale is presented as a lover of God’s Word who had the mind of an artistic genius. In a way few English writers have been able to achieve, Tyndale deftly combined “Economy…Simplicity [and] Elevation” (p. 67). Tyndale’s work was essentially the basis for the 1611 Authorized (King James) Bible. Aside from perhaps Shakespeare, Tyndale has had the greatest influence of any singular person on the English language. In addition to the thousands of words he invented, many of the most beloved and memorable passages of Scripture in our modern translations are Tyndale’s phrases.  

Tyndale spent his life on the run, as a fugitive-scholar. His crime? Translating the Bible into English. In the end, Tyndale would give his life for his craft and passion. One of the lessons one can learn from the life of Tyndale is that human traditions (among other things) blind men to biblical truth. Even if Tyndale’s theology was not correct at points, he at least grounded it in the Bible. His views were at least biblically plausible positions to take. This could not be said of his opponents.

Teems has produced a well-written account of the life and times of William Tyndale. He is sympathetic to Tyndale and his causes. He shows how Tyndale’s exile from England shaped and enriched his translation. Tyndale is shown to be a man of self-control and steady conviction. While fair in his portrayals, Teems is not afraid to reveal the warts of Tyndale’s pursuers (e.g., Tunstall, Wolsey, and More). In the end, this book should educate and inspire its readers to strive for lives of greater significance for the things that eternally matter. 


I received this book for free from Thomas Nelson Publishing to write this review.

Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Revelation, by James M. Hamilton, Jr.


Book Review by Chris Haven

James Hamilton has written a fine commentary on the book of Revelation. As part of the “Preaching the Word” commentary series, he has followed the flavor of the series by keeping the content at a more popular level (avoiding extensive footnotes and highly technical discussions) with a large amount of meaningful application.

Although not stated explicitly in the book, Hamilton appears to write from a kind of idealist and futurist perspective. His view on Revelation 20 is Premillennial (historic). Hamilton parts ways with Dispensationalists regularly in this text, making it clear that he is not a Dispenationalist. For instance, Hamilton takes the perspective that God will preserve his elect through the tribulation, not remove them in a prior rapture (p. 116).  He understands “Daniel’s seventieth week” as the entire age between Christ’s first and second coming, not as a final seven year tribulation at the end of the church age (pp. 171-72, 194). He rejects a straight chronology, holding to a form of parallelism or recapitulation where the same period of time is depicted more than once using differing imagery (p. 188). He does not believe that a new temple will be rebuilt in Jerusalem (p. 234), and he sees the two witnesses of Revelation 11 as representing not literal figures but the church proclaiming the gospel during the church era (p. 237).

This commentary had many strengths.

First, it was very readable. As mentioned above, one does not get bogged down in highly technical discussions or distracted by any number of potential scholarly debates. Hamilton tips his hat to other perspectives where it is appropriate, but keeps the flow moving.

Second, the commentary had a devotional quality missing from many commentaries. The length of the chapters (being ten to fifteen pages a piece) and the significant amount of application in each chapter made for great devotional reading. I actually used this commentary as a supplement to my daily Bible reading as I read through the book of Revelation. That was a tremendously edifying experience.

Finally, Hamilton models careful exegesis in making his decision of how to interpret the Millennium by comparing the casting of Satan out of heaven in Revelation 12 with the text of Revelation 20. While he ultimately is convinced that the millennium is future, he does not let his Millennialism dominate as Dispensational Premillennialists sometimes do, especially at the popular level. His careful work in the text shows that one's decision about the Millennium in reality does not radically affect how one interprets the rest of the book. For Hamilton, the millennium is not the main event of the book of Revelation. 

There are only a few minor weaknesses to mention.  

First, it would have been helpful to include an introduction that provided a bit more on the perspective from which Hamilton was writing. Is he writing as an idealist, a futurist or a preterist? Do sections overlap chronologically, and if so, where are the seams? What is the grand organizing principle of the book? His perspective, of course, comes out in his exegesis, and helpful chiastic structural diagrams are placed in appropriate chapters. But I’ve always found it beneficial to have some idea up front how a scholar is going to handle the book of Revelation in terms of its “big picture.”

Second, in certain places I was left wondering how a particular symbolic representation will take shape in real history. Chapters often seemed to move from Old Testament background to present day application without commenting adequately on how a given prophecy might be fulfilled in real time and space. For instance, it may be true that a locust plague referred to a human army Deuteronomy 28 and Joel 1 and 2 (p. 215), but how will a human army literally be a part of God’s final dealings with this present age? What about the substantial destruction of the world’s natural resources? What about Armageddon? While I appreciate Hamilton’s seeming aversion to charting out an end times chronology, I think he might do well to address the propensity that readers still expect to find out something about what is really (rather than symbolically) going to happen. I suspect Hamilton has provided as much detail as he feels comfortable giving without going into wild speculation. He comments in one place that God “has given us symbols, not specifics” (p. 324).   

In conclusion, James Hamilton’s commentary on Revelation is well worth reading. Not only will you learn more about the book of Revelation, but you will learn much about how to apply this important book to your life.

I received this book for free from Crossway Publishing to provide a review. 

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Why Church Matters, by Joshua Harris



Book Review by Chris Haven

Why Church Matters, previously published with the title Stop Dating the Church!, is a short and highly accessible introduction to what the church is and why every believer should be a part of its local expression.

In chapter one, Harris discusses what one misses when one fails to join the local church. The local church is God’s community, “the vehicle that Jesus chose to take the message of the gospel to every generation and people” (p. 10). He identifies what typifies someone who casually “dates” local churches rather than committing to them. “Church-daters” are portrayed as “me-centered” (what can the church do for me?), “independent” (avoiding meaningful involvement with people), and “critical” (having a fickle, consumeristic mentality) (pp. 6-7). In failing to become part of the local church, Harris says “you cheat yourself...you cheat a church community…[and] you cheat the world” (p. 8).

In chapter two, the church is presented as God sees and defines it. Harris makes the biblical distinction between the “big C Church” (the Universal Church) and the “local church.” The big C Church is described in Scripture as God’s bride. Harris then highlights three descriptions of the local church from the book of Ephesians; the church is portrayed as a family, a body and a temple (pp. 23-25).

Chapter three argues for the importance of being part of the local church. Harris, like Charles Spurgeon and Mark Dever, is not timid in asserting that failure to be an active participant in the local church is tantamount to disobedience and gives possible evidence that one has not truly been converted. Harris agrees with Dever that the “church is there to verify or falsify our claims to be Christians”(p. 45).  A “new life,” says Harris, leads inevitably to a “new society.” This new society provides uniquely what no other organization on earth can (para-church ministries notwithstanding), namely, the ordinances of baptism, the Lord’s Supper, and discipline (p. 39).

Chapter four addresses what it really means to be committed to the local church. Harris suggests the following seven indicators of commitment:
  1. You join.
  2. You make the local church a priority.
  3. You try to make your pastor’s job a joy.
  4. You find ways to serve.
  5. You give.
  6. You connect with people.
  7. You share your passion.

In chapter five, Harris provides ten “essential” things that one should consider when choosing a church. His “must-have” list is as follows:

  1. Is this a church where God’s Word is faithfully taught?
  2. Is this a church where sound doctrine matters?
  3. Is this a church in which the gospel is cherished and clearly proclaimed?
  4. Is this a church committed to reaching non-Christians with the gospel?
  5. Is this a church whose leaders are characterized by humility and integrity?
  6. Is this a church where people strive to live by God’s Word?
  7. Is this a church where I can find and cultivate godly relationships?
  8. Is this a church where members are challenged to serve?
  9. Is this a church that is willing to kick me out?
  10. Is this a church I’m willing to join “as is” with enthusiasm and faith in God?

In chapter six Harris suggests a number of ways one can get more mileage out of Sunday for our entire week.  While not a strict Sabbatarian, he suggests that we should un-clutter Sunday as “the Lords Day” (p. 93). We should prepare ahead of service by going to bed on time the night before and preparing our hearts for worship before the service (pp. 95-100). During the service, we should practice attentive listening to the sermon (pp. 100-103). After the service we should be looking at ways to apply the text all week long (pp. 103-106). 

In the final chapter, we our exhorted to be committed to the local church: “If you passionately love Jesus Christ but haven’t been committed to the church, I hope you’ve heard your Master come to you on the pages of this book” (p. 114).

This is one of those books that you can read in one sitting and absorb many great concepts and practical applications.

First, the book concisely sets forth a biblical theology of the church. That it is both universal and local, and that being a part of the former and not the latter is a massive inconsistency and a cause for spiritual concern. This is a helpful corrective to a dearth of teaching on the importance of the church as an institution of the highest spiritual significance.  Harris, vis-à-vis Mark Dever, strikes the right balance between stating the essential importance of local church participation for one’s spiritual life without teaching that the church is the font of salvation.

Second, the discussion on Christian unity was very helpful. Too often the fact of denominational differences is “Exhibit A” for disunity within the church. Harris rightly points out that denominationalism actually provides for people who disagree about secondary and tertiary issues to do church separately, while firmly upholding a common gospel and engaging in the mission of the church together. Groups like the Gospel Coalition, Together for the Gospel, and the Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals are examples of organizations made up of people from a variety of Evangelical denominations, while all monolithic with respect to the Gospel. In my view this is a far superior way to show unity than to bring all Christians under one umbrella to be part of a single institution and feign agreement or battle over very controversial non-essentials.

Third, Harris helpfully points out the uniqueness of the local church. The church does what no secular or para-church organization can do. As someone once said, the church is an education with teeth. I have long thought of local church membership in terms of one formally associating with a local group of believers under a commitment to share in the benefits and responsibilities of community life and to submit to the leadership and authority of God’s appointed church leaders. Thinking of church membership this way shows why the concept of a “casual-dater” of the church is so at odds with a New Testament worldview. How does the casual-dater obey the New Testament command to “obey your leaders and submit to them, for they are keeping watch over your souls?”

If you are a pastor or church leader, I would recommend buying this book in bulk and handing it out to visitors. This would also be a great book to have as a component to a membership class. 


I received this book for free from WaterBrook Multnomah Publishing Group for this review.

Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Gospel-Centered Discipleship, by Jonathan K. Dodson



Publication Date: March 31, 2012

Book Review by Chris Haven

After a brief introductory chapter, Gospel-Centered Discipleship is organized into three major parts: Defining Discipleship, Getting to the Heart, and Applying the Gospel.

Part one is divided into two chapters. The first chapter addresses the controversial subject of whether the disciplemaking mandate of the Great Commission should be seen as a command to evangelize, a command to edify, or both. The second chapter in this part concerns the goal of discipleship, which is to become like Jesus.

Part two, Getting to the Heart, contains three chapters. The first chapter deals with the failure of discipleship. Specifically, the topic of improper motivations for discipleship is discussed. The second chapter then identifies the Gospel as the proper motivation for discipleship. The final chapter of this part suggests that the power of discipleship is found in the leading, guiding, and sanctifying of the Holy Spirit.

In the third part, Applying the Gospel, there are three final chapters: communal discipleship, practical discipleship, and the maturing and multiplying disciples. These final three chapters put “skin” on the discipleship model advocated in the book, showing examples for implementation in the contexts of traditional small groups and intensive one-anothering cell groups which Dodson calls “fight clubs.”

Gospel-Centered Discipleship has a number of strengths.

First, Dodson wades into the dialogue concerning whether we should see discipleship as primarily evangelism or edification and rightly goes with a “both/and” approach over and against an “either/or” approach. In summary, he states that “the gospel that ‘makes’ disciples is very same gospel that ‘matures’ disciples,” and that we should collapse “the dichotomy between evangelism and discipleship” such that we see that “disciples are made and matured through repentance and faith in the good news” (p. 40). This perspective is similar to the one discipleship guru Bill Hull advocated several years ago in his book, The Disciple-Making Pastor, wherein he suggests that disciples are “born to be made.” Dodson provides a helpful graphic depicting on an x-y axis the balance in discipleship between mission (evangelism) and holiness (maturity) as what he calls "integrated discipleship," represented as a diagonal line on the graph.

Second, Dodson rightly advocates for discipleship which is holistic, stating “the gospel-centered disciple serves Jesus at work and at home, in the study and in the projects, in church and in culture. His aim is public obedience of every kind” (p. 48). This is a needed reminder that discipleship not only happens while serving on a mission trip or during a personal quiet time, but it encompasses all of life.

Third, there is a helpful discussion of how accountability, wrongly understood, turns into either law enforcement or cheap grace. The former involves one Christian policing another Christian’s conduct. The latter turns accountability into a “confessional booth” where “I confess my sin; you confess yours. I pat your back. You pat mine. Then we pray. We depart absolved of any guilt” (p. 65). Dodson rightly suggests that both of these approaches to accountability are devoid of the gospel and its transformative power. Both legalism and license are deadly to the Christian life.

The book also contained some weak points.

First, I think Dodson’s synthesis of discipleship identity into component parts of rational, relational, and missional (pp. 30-31) is not quite comprehensive enough to capture the essence of New Testament discipleship. This formulation captures the cognitive (rational) and active (relational and missional) elements of discipleship, but leaves out the internal dimension. A more holistic synthesis involves the head, hands and heart. This is essentially the perspective that The Trellis and the Vine provides in stating that disciple-making “involves nurturing and teaching people in their understanding and knowledge (their convictions), in their godliness and way of life (character), and in their abilities and practical experience of ministering to others (their competence)” (Trellis, pp. 154-55). Discipleship must be about bringing every facet of ones humanity under the Lordship of Christ; discipleship is about biblically-directed knowing, doing and being.

Second, I appreciate Dodson’s concern to make Jesus the center of discipleship. He rightly says, “Jesus, alone, should take the center place in our lives, not our Bible reading, evangelism, character, or effort to be different or spiritual. No disciple will ever graduate from the school of grace” (p. 40). I wonder, however, if perhaps at places in the book he overcompensates a bit. For instance, Dodson contends that “Bible reading, prayer, fasting, [and] confession,” which he calls “vertical piety,” leads to a situation where “disciples unknowingly try to cultivate righteousness on their own apart from Christ” (p. 44). Certainly it is possible for a Christian to focus too much on pietistic exercises. However, I do not think this is the necessary consequence for those who engage in what other authors like Donald Whitney would call the spiritual disciplines. Whitney’s perspective in Spiritual Disciplines for the Christian Life actually sees the danger for most people in being that they have too little vertical piety. I have yet to meet a person who reads his Bible and prays for too many hours per day. The reality is that Jesus and the gospel do not immediately come upon us, they are the result of means.

Third, while I agree with Dodson that the indwelling Holy Spirit is Who empowers disciples to live Godly lives and provides guidance, I have some difficulty with the way he formulates the Spirit’s directing influence in our lives.

One the one hand, he seems to overemphasize the subjective directing by the Holy Spirit in the life of the believer. One example he gives for how one can better be led by the Spirit is, “Instead of just deciding which coffee shop or restaurant you want to go to, ask the Spirit to lead you” (p. 93). It is true that the book of Acts has examples of the Spirit leading individuals to take certain specific action like Philip approaching the Ethiopian Eunuch (8:29), Peter going with the men sent from Cornelius (11:12), the church at Antioch setting aside Paul and Barnabas for ministry (13:2), and Paul and Silas being directed away from Asia (16:6-7). While the Spirit may lead in this way should He chose to do so, it seems that the references in Acts should not be used as proof-texts to suggest this kind of leading is a normative means of the Spirit working in the believer’s life any more than the Spirit’s activity witnessed in Acts 2:1-4, 8:14-17, 10:44-46, and 19:1-7 should be seen as normative or expected with every believer’s conversion. The problem with making this element of the Spirit's ministry the primary focus is that it often becomes very subjective if not solidly anchored to the other ways in which the Spirit works in the life of the believer (i.e., the renewed mind, godly counselors, and Scripture).

This leads to the other side of the imbalance, where Dodson seems to downplay the intellect in the process of decision-making when he states disparagingly, “Decision making is reduced to a personal inner dialogue with our reason, not an opportunity to relate the person of the Spirit. We succumb to a ploy of the Deceiver who would have us ‘mistake’ the Spirit for fleeting personal preference or a rational option. When we do this, we depersonalize the Spirit” (p. 100). My question is why do we need to choose between reason and the Spirit? Do we not have the mind of Christ (1 Cor. 2:16)? Have not our minds been renewed (Rom. 12:2)? More balance needs to be brought to this issue.

In conclusion, while some concepts in the book seem to be more satisfactorily addressed by other authors, Gospel-Centered Discipleship provides some solid material on how to view discipleship with Christ and the gospel driving the process. Particularly helpful is Part Three of the book where many practical suggestions are shared for implementation of small group discipleship ministry in the local church.

I received this book for free from Crossway Publishing for this review.